In September of 2019, the World Health Organization (WHO) and Global Preparedness Monitoring Board (GPMB) published a report with a warning—our risk of a global pandemic was on the rise, and the world was not prepared. Three months later, in December 2019, the first COVID-19 cases were reported to the World Health Organization.
Under detection and underreporting are problematic for a variety of reasons. They make it more difficult to understand the true spread of the virus, which impacts everything from resource planning in healthcare systems to public policies designed to reduce infection spread.
To beat the COVID-19 pandemic, a combination of strategies for testing, treatment, vaccination, and community mitigation measures is needed. Research on protective immunity is especially important, both because current understanding is limited and because of its implications for testing strategies and vaccination.