AMR arises naturally as microbes encounter antimicrobials; however, the overconsumption of antimicrobials, particularly in the agriculture sector, is accelerating the process.
The main determinants of AMR are antimicrobial resistant genes (ARGs) of bacteria and fungi, which have many ways of entering our bodies: through food, water, the air, exposure to surfaces, and so forth.
Over the past decade, bloodstream infections (BSI) caused by nontyphoidal Salmonella have killed approximately 650,000 people globally. Salmonella is also the most frequently isolated pathogen in hospitalized patients diagnosed with community-onset BSI in Africa and Asia.
Authors of a February 2020 ImmunoTargets and Therapy article argue that immunoinformatics can help tackle three major concerns: emerging infectious disease, pathogens with antigenic variability, and personalized vaccines.