In a 2016 survey of leading hospitals, 82% reported having an Antimicrobial Stewardship Program (ASP). However, this number will grow much larger after the new Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) rule goes into effect in Spring 2020.
AMR has been identified as a major threat by the World Health Organization due to the lack of new antibiotics in the development pipeline and infections caused by multi-drug resistant pathogens becoming untreatable.
From 1404 to the middle of the 19th century, 31 flu epidemics were recorded, including eight large-scale pandemics, which killed millions of people and highlighted a need for international cooperation on public health. Cooperation began with the first International Sanitary Conference, held in 1851.